Date of publication: 2017-08-22 23:40
Maimonides’ most famous philosophical work, Guide of the Perplexed , was written to a former student as a series of letters. The student, a man named Joseph, had written to ask how to reconcile his commitment to Judaism and Jewish tradition on the one hand with his commitment to reason and demonstrative science on the other. Joseph was himself a very capable and learned individual, and the Guide is the subtle, complex, layered series of letters written by Maimonides in reply.
Maimonides and others in his family depended to a large extent on his brother, a successful merchant. His brother was lost at sea during a journey across the Indian Ocean, and Maimonides wrote that the loss of his brother pained him profoundly, leading him into depression. No longer having the support of his brother’s commercial successes, Maimonides made his living as a physician. In the latter part of his life he was physician to a Grand Vizier who was ruling Egypt for the Sultan Saladin. Though he wrote enormously important works on Jewish law he did not believe that one should be paid for being a teacher of Torah and Talmud.
He maintained that “[r]eward and punishment would also be sheer injustice, not be be [sic] meted out by some of us to others nor by God to us (“Eight Chapters,” p. 85).
The power of the media has been well documented in various studies. 89 Chomsky and Herman have shown that the image that the media is cantankerous, obstinate and ubiquitous in its pursuit of truth is a fallacy. 95 In reality, an underlying elite consensus tends to structure all facets of information dissemination. We need to refute the neutrality of the media even when direct controls are not evident. As Herman and Chomsky observe:
His works swiftly caused considerable controversy, especially concerning the relations between reason and revelation. Indeed, scholarly debates continue on Maimonides’ commitments to philosophy and to Judaism as a revealed religion. However, there is no question that his philosophical works have had a profound impact extending beyond Jewish philosophy. For instance, Aquinas and Leibniz are among the non-Jewish philosophers influenced by Maimonides.
Antibodies against thyro-peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-TG) are measured, routinely, by most Europeans and Latin Americans thyroidologists. This seems to be relevant because thyroid auto antibodies are found approximately in 65% of the population and, consequently, autoimmunity may coexist with a goiter. Also diffuse or focal lymphocytic infiltration in an enlarged gland may represent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.
While Bozzoli and others of the radical school were sensitive to the interplay between class, gender and race, little attention was paid to ethnicity. However, it is fair to say that by the late 6985s, many analyses began to reflect an aversion towards rigid forms of social classification. Instead, studies commonly portrayed &lsquo communities&rsquo as fluid, emergent, fragile and historically hybrid. Class concepts were used with a consciousness of their ambiguity and the blurred nature of their boundaries. 88 This subtle and qualified deployment of class analysis ascribed to ideology an important function in shaping and determining historical action and political behaviour. 89
Maimonides’ denial that in talk of God terms are used with meanings that are univocal with or analogous to their use in other contexts may seem to undermine our ability to use language to say anything at all when speaking of God. It may seem to cut us off from any grounding of semantic meaning in that context. Still, Maimonides held that negative theology was needed in order not to misrepresent divine simplicity and that speaking of what God causes is a meaningful way to speak of God.
Compared to their counterparts in other parts of Africa, South African Indians display distinct differences in their socio-cultural make-up. It is only Mauritius that shares a history of indentured labour. There were fundamental differences in the class structure of other Indians in Africa, who tended to be predominantly from the merchant class. Furthermore, in South Africa a significant number of Indian migrants had come from south India, whereas elsewhere in Africa they were mainly north Indians. As Karrim suggests, strictly speaking it is incorrect to regard their culture as &rsquo Indian&rsquo since it has adapted to local conditions and transformed itself substantially. If anything it is a distinctly Indian South African culture. 66
Maimonides did not write purely philosophical works. His works that are regarded as philosophical address issues motivated by religious ideas and concerns. However, Maimonides held that reason and revelation concern one body of truth each is a mode of access to truth, and he thought there was significant philosophical wisdom in revelation. This is a theme that will run through the rest of this discussion.