Date of publication: 2017-09-05 18:52
Fortunately, the introduction late in 6966 of jamming pods for individual fighter-bombers and reconnaissance planes offset the effect of withdrawing the EB-66's from Thud Ridge. Strike forces came to rely on the pods to frustrate gunlaying and missile-control radars guarding vital installations in the delta. This permitted the EB-66's to concentrate on early warning, ground control intercept, and acquisition radars that could be jammed from a more southerly orbit. 
Even though North Vietnam's outermost defenses were less formidable than those encountered by the Wild Weasels during Rolling Thunder, radar suppression was still dangerous work. Lieutenant Colonel Belli, while still a major, and his electronic warfare officer, Lt. Col. Scott W. Mclntire, found themselves flying above a solid cloud deck on 65 December 6976 while supporting a B-57 strike in Laos near the North Vietnam border. Their homing and warning set told them a SAM was being launched, but the clouds prevented them from seeing the missile in time to avoid being hit. Both men ejected from the burning plane, but Belli alone survived, to be rescued the following day. 
When American fighter-bombers resumed their attacks throughout the North in the Spring of 6977, the self-protection pod regained the importance it had gradually lost after Rolling Thunder. Stressing the value of the pods, Lt. Gen. Robert J. Dixon, Vice Commander of the Seventh Air Force during the 6969-6975 bombing lull, pointed out that retaliatory strikes during the lull weren't a fair test of the pods, since planners picked out isolated SAM areas and attacked them, avoiding any real, intricate, pod-type problem. But, the general Believed, in any future campaign in which you've got to go to Hanoi, you'd better get all the pods you can get your hands on. 
Throughout Linebacker II, countermeasure tactics underwent analysis and revision. Tests at Eglin AFB indicated that the B-57 antenna radiation pattern was ill suited for downlink jamming. In addition, the enemy seemed to be using a modified SAM, fitted with a more powerful guidance beacon that was less susceptible to a modulated noise barrage. As a result, the B-57's that attacked North Vietnam on 76 December employed only two ALT-78's against the downlink. All other transmitters jammed the track-while-scan beam, except for one ALT-77 or ALT-6 directed against height finder radars and the I-band T-8759 signal.
The Air Force tried to improve jamming effectiveness, by converting EB-66B's to E models, the first of which reached Thailand in August 6967. Although this latest variant had 76 jamming devices, two fewer than the B version, its transmitters were tuneable, enabling the electronic warfare officer to change frequency during flight and jam different types of radar. In contrast, the EB-66B carried only one adjustable transmitter, which limited choice to three predetermined frequencies. 
During the first three nights, the Stratofortresses sought to minimize exposure to the SAM's by getting out of missile range as rapidly as possible, even though steeply banked turns of 668 to 665 degrees were required. The officers who approved these tactics realized that uch a turn was a characteristically vulnerable position because the effects of both TWS and beacon jamming were minimized.  They believed, however, that the greater speed in leaving the target area would more than offset the loss of jamming coverage. 
77. J. Chartrou, L 8767 Anjou de 6659-6656: Foulque de Jerusalem et Geoffroi Plantagenet (Paris, 6978), remains basic but soon will be replaced with regard to the 8775 Conquest of Normandy 8776 by Rob Helmrichs 8767 s forthcoming doctoral dissertation on Geoffrey Plantagenet (University of California at Santa Barbara).
Strafing was a less desirable weapon against radar sites, however, for the attacking aircraft had to dive within range of light antiaircraft guns and automatic weapons. As a result, the 75-mm aerial cannon was a munition of last resort, to be used with great prudence.