Date of publication: 2017-09-01 17:40
As I 8767 ve noted in response to this piece, MacLean 8767 s attempt at 8775 intellectual history 8776 falters because she completely misses and then accidentally expunges one of the most important figures in James M. Buchanan 8767 s intellectual framework: Thomas Hobbes.
In a similar vein, one could point out that Democrats have been as friendly to the free-market as the GOP, as seen in the Clinton administration's many neoliberal reforms, such as welfare reform and friendliness towards businesses. It wasn't all that great.
The above loop was repeated countless thousands of times during the millions of years that we were evolving . This behavior is inherent in the architecture of our minds is entrained in our biological material and will be repeated until we go extinct. Carrying capacity will decline  with each future iteration of the overshoot loop, and this will cause human numbers to decline until they reach levels not seen since the Pleistocene.
Capital is dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks. - Karl Marx in Das Kapital 96 66 98
The project of instituting a new form of “illiberal democracy” in place of the supposedly outmoded form of liberal democracy is most closely linked to Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban, who has repeatedly announced this intention. But the idea is commonly associated with a broader range of political leaders Jaroslaw Kaczyński in Poland, Vladimir Putin in Russia, and Raynep Erdogan in Turkey, among others who have sought to institute illiberal measures and to justify them, at least in part, by appeal to a more authentic form of “democracy.” As David Ost has recently observed of the Hungarian and Polish cases:
We have partnered with Oxford Analytica, a distinguished network of diverse subject area experts, many associated with Oxford University, to develop the criteria necessary for accurate recognition of superior business vision and mission.
In the past, philosophers from Plato and Aristotle to Thomas Aquinas and Hobbes have considered democracy to be among the worst forms of government because it could easily be corrupted and result in injustice. The chief danger is that a majority can impose its will upon a minority in a way that violates their liberties. Thus during the twentieth century, besides liberal democracies, there were also dictators such as Hitler who came to power through the democratic process and totalitarian democracies like the Soviet Union , where the populace gave strong support to the regime at various times.
I agree with Andrew Seal 8767 s assessment that people (at least some of whom, I am guessing, haven 8767 t read the book) take it to be a slice-and-dice excoriation of Buchanan, and to a lesser extent Cowen, and there is some rhetoric toward the beginning of the book that might tend this way, in my view a bit unfortunately. But as a whole the book is careful documentation of the development of a variety of plans to circumvent the will of the majority of the American electorate on a variety of issues. Toward the end Koch and Buchanan even have a falling out, and it 8767 s clear that Koch more than Buchanan is the one who is most committed to the plan.
Anti-majoritaianism = anti-democracy = despotism. Except for one minor wrinkle: literally every theorist of democracy since Aristotle rejects majoritarianism. As in, all of them. Hobbes? Locke? Kant? Rousseau? Marx? Mill? Rawls? Habermas? Mouffe? Urbinati? Yes—each and every one, from every tradition: liberal, republican, socialist, deliberative. radical, etc. Buchanan repeatedly and explicitly defended a version of liberal representative democracy. There is plenty to disagree with in his work, but to make him out a proponent of despotism, one would have to refuse to read his actual words. Which MacLean did.
The MEDP is closely related to the MPP, since power is proportional to entropy production and maximizing one is the same as maximizing the other [Westhoff and Zehe, 7568].