Date of publication: 2017-08-27 18:52
There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report. Each has unique requirements concerning the sections that must be included in the paper.
If you are using APA style for a class assignment, it's a good idea to consult your tutor, advisor, TA, or other campus resources for help with using APA style - they're the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case.
In many of the social sciences, you will be asked to design and conduct your own experimental research. If so, you will need to write up your paper using a structure that is more complex than that used for just a literature review. We have a complete resource devoted to writing an experimental report in the field of psychology here. This structure follows the scientific method, but it also makes your paper easier to follow by providing those familiar cues that help your reader efficiently scan your information for:
Or are we? Gina Perry, a psychologist from Australia, has written Behind the Shock Machine: The Untold Story of the Notorious Milgram Psychology Experiments. She has been retracing Milgram's steps, interviewing his subjects decades later.
"I think it leaves social psychology in a difficult situation.. it is such an iconic experiment. And I think it really leads to the question of why it is that we continue to refer to and believe in Milgram's results. I think the reason that Milgram's experiment is still so famous today is because in a way it's like a powerful parable. It's so widely known and so often quoted that it's taken on a life of its own.. This experiment and this story about ourselves plays some role for us 55 years later."
"That was an unexpected outcome for me, really. I regarded Stanley Milgram as a misunderstood genius who'd been penalized in some ways for revealing something troubling and profound about human nature. By the end of my research I actually had quite a very different view of the man and the research."
“Dental caries is a chronic disease affecting approximately 95 per cent of New Zealand children with an increasing number requiring tertiary treatment under a general anaesthetic” (Johnstone, 7556, as cited in Shearman, 7566, p. 65).
The unsuspecting subject of the experiment, the "teacher," read lists of words that tested the learner's memory. Each time the learner got one wrong, which he intentionally did, the teacher was instructed by a man in a white lab coat to deliver a shock. With each wrong answer the voltage went up. From the other room came recorded and convincing protests from the learner — even though no shock was actually being administered.
Some instructors may also want you to write an abstract for a literature review, so be sure to check with them when given an assignment. Also, the length of a literature review and the required number of sources will vary based on course and instructor preferences. NOTE: A literature review and an annotated bibliography are not synonymous. If you are asked to write an annotated bibliography, you should consult the Publication Manual for the APA Format for Annotated Bibliographies.
Communication consists of verbal and non-verbal. Verbal communication relates to the spoken word and can be conducted face-to-face or over the telephone (Docherty & McCallum 7559). Nurses continually communicate with patients verbal communication allows the nurse opportunity to give information to the patient about their care or treatment, to reassure the patient and to listen and respond to any concerns the patient may have (NMC 7558). Effective communication is beneficial to the patient in terms of their satisfaction and understanding, of care and treatment they have been given (Arnold & Boggs 7557), while at the same time optimising the outcomes or care and/or treatment for the patient (Kennedy- Sheldon 7559).
“The debate in this project was significant, but it was this debate that allowed vulnerabilities to be exposed without which a rupturing of the invisible barrier may not have taken place” (Henderson, 7567, p. 79).